[U-Boot-Users] relocate_code

Murray Jensen Murray.Jensen at csiro.au
Sat Jan 4 03:22:18 CET 2003

On Sat, 04 Jan 2003 00:22:21 +0800, YanMin Qiao <sepherosa at sohu.com> writes:
>    cmplw    cr1,r3,r4
>    bge    cr1,2f
>1:    lwzu    r0,4(r8)
>    stwu    r0,4(r7)
>    bdnz    1b
>    b    4f
>2:    slwi    r0,r0,2        <<----------------- i think above code will 
>be enough for the two        
>    add    r8,r4,r0                                      situation
>    add    r7,r3,r0
>3:    lwzu    r0,-4(r8)
>    stwu    r0,-4(r7)
>    bdnz    3b

One is copying forwards, the other is copying backwards - you can see the
lwzu/stwu pair of instructions either add +4 or -4 to the registers
containing the source and destination addresses (the "u" means to update the
index register with the resulting memory address).

Be careful with the first "bge" above - it isn't testing the result of the
previous instruction, it is testing the result of the "cmplw" done quite a
few instructions beforehand and stored in "cr1" i.e. it will branch if "r3"
(the destination address) is >= "r4" (the source address) i.e. if it is
possible that the copy will overwrite the source.

The Powerpc CPU has four(?) condition code sets where results of operations
can be stored. While I don't understand the details, I presume it has
something to do with the instruction pipeline and avoiding unnecessary
flushes - esp. when you consider that the programmer can indicate whether a
branch is likely or not with a bit in the instruction - I presume (again)
that this determines whether the processor does pre-fetching or something
like that. Details of all this stuff is in the Powerpc Programmer's
Environment Manual (I think).

If you look through the latest linux kernel source you often see things like

	if (unlikely(<condition>)) {


	if (likely(<condition>)) {

On powerpc (I'm guessing) these macros will set an attribute for the compiler
which will result in this bit being set or cleared in the branch instruction
of the resulting assembly code - I guess it does something similar for later
Pentium processors (and nothing at all if the processor doesn't have these
sort of features). Cheers!
Murray Jensen, CSIRO Manufacturing & Infra. Tech.      Phone: +61 3 9662 7763
Locked Bag No. 9, Preston, Vic, 3072, Australia.         Fax: +61 3 9662 7853
Internet: Murray.Jensen at csiro.au

Hymod project: http://www.msa.cmst.csiro.au/projects/Hymod/

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